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Izixhobo zeLebhu yeLebhu ye-Chemistry ebalulekileyo kwiLebhu nganye

ezaposwa ngomhla Julayi 6, 2021 by I-AntiTeckIzixhobo zeLabhanki

intshayelelo

I-organic chemistry ijongana nesifundo sepropathi yokwakheka, iimpendulo, ukulungiswa, kunye nolwakhiwo lwezo zinto zinekhabhoni. Ke ngoko imfuno yezixhobo kwiilebhu zekhemistri ephilayo izisa ukusebenza okufunekayo ukuze kwenziwe iimpendulo kwaye kuqatshelwe impendulo ethile okanye inkqubo. Izixhobo ezahlukileyo zisetyenziswa kwilabhoratri yeekhemistri kwaye apha ngezantsi zezona zibaluleke kakhulu ezingama-20 ikhemistry izixhobo zelebhu.

I-1- BIO-XPS / X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer

Esi sisixhobo sohlalutyo esisetyenziselwa ukufundisisa isiphumo sombane. I-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy yenziwa ngoncedo lwesi sixhobo. Ngoncedo lwesi sixhobo, ukwakheka kunye nokudibana kwemichiza kunokuba zizifundo zaso nasiphi na isixhobo okanye umphezulu. Inceda ekuchongeni izinto ezifumaneka kwizinto eziyinyithi kunye nezinto zomgubo.

2-Iiglasi

I-Glassware isetyenziselwa umsebenzi we-microscale. Iiglasi yinto yokomisa ityhubhu, intloko kaHickman, isixhobo samanzi esisangqa amanzi, isivuthuzisi somoya, umoya okhupha umoya, ijikelezisa vane, kunye neadapter yeclaisen yechemistry yemichiza. Injongo yokusebenzisa i-glassware yi-distillation, i-reflux, kunye nezinye iinkqubo ze-organic chemistry laboratory. Ngenxa yamaglasi eglasi omhlaba afakwe kwisiqwenga ngasinye seglasi, zisetyenziselwa ukwenza i-Taper glassware ibiza kakhulu kunezinto eziqhelekileyo zeglasi ezifana neebheki kunye neeflask ze-Erlenmeyer.

3- Izibopho

Izixhobo ezisetyenziswe kwi-organic lab chemistry zahlulwe ngesizathu sokuba izixhobo zinokuqiniswa nezinye izixhobo ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo kwaye nomphunga awubaleki kwizixhobo. Kukho izinto ezahlukeneyo zokubamba ezinenjongo eyahlukileyo. Ezi ntlobo zimbini ziphambili zokubopha zizibopho ezandisiweyo kunye nezibopho ezineminwe emithathu. Ezi zibopho zisetyenziselwa ukubamba izixhobo kwaye zidityaniswe kunye.

Umahluko we-4- X-ray

Ukuchonga ubuni bezinto eziqinileyo ze-crystalline okanye iiminerali ngokusekwe kubume beatom, kusetyenziswa iX-ray Diffraction. Isizathu sokwenzeka kokungafaniyo ngumahluko wobude beeyure ze-X-ray ezinee-angstroms ezimbalwa eziphantse zilingane nomgama we-interatomic kwimigangatho yeekristalline.

I-5- JSPM-400 Skena uvavanyo lweMicroscope

Kwizixhobo zeelebhu zekhemistri, ii-microscopes zibaluleke kakhulu kwaye i-JSPM-400 yimicroscope enamandla esetyenziswayo okanye esekwe njengeMicroscope yeAtomic okanye iskena imicroscope. Kwakhona, ezinye iimodyuli ze-AFM eziqhelekileyo zinxibelelana, ukunyanzeliswa kwemicroscopy, umfanekiso wangoku, kunye non-non-contact AFM. Ukucaciswa okuphambili kwemicroscope kukuba kukho isithuba kwaye isampulu inokutshixwa ngaphakathi. Ngaphaya koko, kukho iskena esingama-25 mm ngaphakathi kuyo.

6- I-Bruker FT-IR Spectrometer

Iifekrometri ezimbini zeFournier-Transform infrared zixhotyiswe kwizixhobo zeLebhu yeChemistry yeLebhu. Zombini ezi ziimitha ziBruke Tensor 27. Zisetyenziselwa uhlalutyo lweekhemikhali. Imicroscope ixhotywe nge-15X IR njongo kunye nenjongo ye-15X GIR. Isoftware kunye / okanye indawo yovuyo yokulawula indawo yeXY yenqanaba.

7- Isisombululo se-Thermo Scientific Exactive High-Resolution MS

Ukuqhuba inkqubo yohlalutyo lobunzima, kusetyenziswa i-ExACTIVE MS Detector. Itekhnoloji esetyenziswe kulo mtshini yi-Orbitrap. Ngapha koko, ezona mpawu ziphambili zalesi sitshixo sinesisombululo esiphakamileyo sineendlela ezintle nezingalunganga ze-ion polarity, ukuchaneka kobunzima kungafumaneka kwi-sub-ppm kunye nokusonjululwa kwayo okuphezulu ukuya kuthi ga kwi-100.000 FWMH.

8- Iipayipi kunye neeDropper

Njengoko igama libonisa, iipipettes zisetyenziselwa ukuhambisa ulwelo kwenye iiglasi. Zinerabha kwelinye icala kwaye zisetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukukha amanzi kwiibhotile ezincinci zentamo. Kwi-organic chemistry, iipipettes zisetyenziselwa ukwenza kunye nokuvavanya ulwelo ngelixa bezama ukuphendula kweekhemikhali ezahlukeneyo. Iidropha zicace gca ngamagama abo. Iidropha zisetyenziswa xa inani elifunekayo lolwelo kufuneka linqunyelwe kwaye lichanekile. Kuyimfuneko kuba ukuba inani lotshintsho lolwelo nangayiphi na indlela okt ukonyusa okanye ukunciphisa inkqubo kunye nokuvavanywa kunokuhamba ngamampunge kwaye oko kungakhokelela kulibaziseko lwenkqubo, ukuphendula, njl njl. ukongeza ulwelo kancinci kancinci. Ezi zimbini zibalulekile ekuqhubeni iinkqubo zelebhu yemichiza.

9- Ithemometha

Ukulandelela umva ngo-1998 xa utshintsho lwangeniswa kwiilebhu ze-chemistry njengoko ii-thermometer ezingezizo i-mercury zaziswa kwizixhobo zeelebhu ngenjongo yokhuseleko. Iithemometha zangoku zinoluhlu lobushushu olungu -20 ° ukuya kwi-150 ° C. Zizaliswe lulwelo olubomvu ukwenza ukufunda kube lula. Ngoku kwaye, uvavanyo lufuna ukuba kusetyenziswe ithemometha elikwaziyo ukufunda amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-150 ° C. Nangona zisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa iqondo lobushushu, iithemometha ezisetyenziselwa uvavanyo kunye novavanyo azizizo iimveliso zasekhaya.

I-10- Iinkqubo zeChromatographic HPLC kunye ne-GC-MS

Kwintsimi ye-organic chemistry, yindlela yohlalutyo esetyenziselwa ukwahlula izinto zeekhemikhali kwaye zinokuba ziimolekyuli ze-organic okanye iigesi ze-organic. Nje ukuba babhaqwe, inkqubo elandelayo kukwazi malunga nobukho babo. Kukho iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuvalelwa ezisetyenziselwa le nkqubo kubandakanya i-UV, iDiode Array Detection, ukuKhanya kweFluorescent. Isalathiso sokuKhanya, kunye nokuKhanya okuSasazekayo kokuKhanya komphunga. Ukusetyenziswa kohlalutyo lwe-chromatographic lwenziwa kuphando lweekhompawundi ezahlukeneyo ngoncedo lwazo naziphi na iindlela ezichongiweyo apha ngasentla.

11- I-Finnigan LXQ Mass Spectrometer

Enye yeentlobo ze-Spectrometer. Ithekhnoloji enkulu kakhulu kwaye seso sizathu sokuba ingafumaneki kuyo yonke ielebhu zekhemistri kunye nezixhobo zayo. Isetyenziselwa ukuhlalutya ubunzima kwaye inovakalelo oluphezulu ngokuthelekiswa nabanye. Ezona mpawu ziphambili ze-LXQ Mass spectrometer kukuba ineendlela ezahlukeneyo ezinje ngeMS, MS / MS, kunye neMSn. Ngapha koko, inokwenza imephu ye-ion kunye nokuskena ngokupheleleyo. Ukongeza okungakumbi kulwazi, ukongeza kwi-infusion ethe ngqo, inkqubo ye-Surveyor Plus HPLC enesampula yetreyini elawulwa liqondo lobushushu (0 ukuya kuma-60 ° C) kunye ne-oveni yekholamu (5 ukuya kuma-95 ° C) ivumela ukwahlulwa kohlalutyo ngaphambi kohlalutyo lwe-MS nePDA Ubhaqo ukusuka kwi-190 ukuya kwi-800 nm.

I-12- Isikere seLebhu yeeLebhu

I-Scissor yeLabhoratri yesixhobo siyimfuneko kakhulu kwilebhu yeekhemistri. Kuyanceda ukuphakamisa nokunika inkxaso kwiiglasi ezahlukeneyo ezinjengeebherikhi, iipleyiti ezishushu, iiglasi zezinto zokuhluza, njlnjl. Enye injongo yesikere sebhu yaselebhu kukunika inkxaso kunye netafile yomphezulu kubude obuthile. Ukongeza, iyandiswa ukuya kuluhlu olubanzi lweendawo eziphakamileyo ngokujika kweqhina, kunye nezixhobo ezinje ngeentonga zenkxaso zibandakanyiwe. Enye injongo ebalulekileyo yejack laboratory ekuphenduleni kweekhemikhali kukuba isetyenziselwa ukulawula ukuphendulwa kweekhemikhali ngokulawula ubushushu ngokukodwa ekuphenduleni xa kuphuma kulawulo.

13- Izixhobo ze-Edinburgh LP920-iLaser Flash Photolysis Spectrometer

Izixhobo zeelebhu zekhemistry ziye zakhula ngokukhawuleza kwezobuchwephesha kwaye zaphucuka njengoko kufuneka ukuba zibone iimpendulo ezahlukeneyo kunye nalo lonke icandelo elincinci. I-LP-920 Laser Flash Photolysis Spectrometer isetyenziselwa ukujonga kunye nokujonga iinkqubo ze-laser ezibandakanya ukufunxwa kunye nokukhutshwa kwexesha elifutshane. Iimpawu ezibaluleke kakhulu kwi-spectrometer yakhe kukuba ine-laser umthombo wokukhulisa yi-Quantel Brilliant Nd: YAG laser esebenza nge-1064 nm. Kukho ii-harmonics ezifikeleleka ngokulula ukuze kufumaneke ubude beembaleki zobushushu ze-532, 355, kunye ne-266 nm. I-Opotek Inc. Imvula yeRainbo Optical Parametric Oscillator ikwafumaneka ekufumaneni ubude bamaza okusukela ku-410 ukuya ku-680 nm. Kukho ikhamera yeAndor iCCD eqhotyoshelwe ngaphakathi kuyo eluncedo kakhulu ekwenzeni ulingo lwembonakalo.

14- IiMantshi zokuFudumeza

Izambatho zokufudumeza zisetyenziswa kwilebhu ye-chemistry kwaye ziyabanjwa nge-Variac. Zimbini iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeengubo okt iingubo zokufudumeza zelaphu kunye neengubo eziqinileyo zokufudumeza isimbo. Isibonelelo sendlela yokufudumeza iimpahla zokunxiba kukuba iyanamathela ngokulula kwaye inokudityaniswa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zeglasi kodwa ukuncamathiselwa kweengcingo ngengubo ayingomzimba owomeleleyo kwaye kuqhekeka ngokulula ngokuphathwa gwenxa okuncinci. Ngezi zizathu, ingubo engqongqo yohlobo lokufudumeza yaziswa. Nangona zibiza imali eninzi kodwa zithembekile. Eyona nto iphambili kule ngubo kukuba inokusetyenziswa njengendawo yokuhlamba isanti.

15- Khuthaza iiMotors

Kwilebhu ye-chemistry ye-organic, kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-motors. Zibuthathaka kwindalo. Iimoto ezikhuthazayo zizixhobo zoomatshini ezigcina umazibuthe omkhulu phantsi komphezulu osindayo, onekhemikhali ongaphezulu. Imoto yombane ijikelezisa umazibuthe. Imishandling inokubangela umonakalo ekuvuseleleni iimoto. Ukuba zilahliwe, ngakumbi kwicala labo, ishafti elawula umazibuthe inokugoba, ibangele ukuba imoto evuselelayo iyeke ukujikeleza. Amanzi kufuneka agcinwe kude kubo kuba aya konakalisa ukujikeleza kombane. Ezi ntambo zinako ukonakala; thintela ukuwisa iikhemikhali kuzo kwaye uzigcine kude neendawo ezishushu.

16- Ukuchukumisa iiPlate

Ii-hotplates ezishukumisayo sesinye sezona zixhobo zibalulekileyo zelebhu eziza nomazibuthe onzima kunye omkhulu obekwe phantsi komphezulu weplati onganyangekiyo ngamachiza. Kukho imoto yombane eqhotyoshelwe kuyo ejikeleza umazibuthe. Imoto yombane iqhotyoshelwe kwipleyiti esetyenziselwa ukubonelela ubushushu kwisinyibilikisi okanye kumxube wokuphendula kubushushu obufunekayo. Kwezinye iilebhu eziphilayo, le yunithi ithatha indawo yokudityaniswa kwemoto evuselelayo, iVavac kunye nengubo yokufudumeza. Ibhloko yokufudumeza ialuminium inokumiswa ngaphezulu kwesixhobo ukulungiselela iiflask ezirhangqileyo kunye nokuzifudumeza ngokufanelekileyo.

I-17- eyahlukileyo

Kwilebhu ye-chemistry ye-organic, izinto ezahlukeneyo sisiguquli esisetyenziselwa ukulawula ukubonelelwa kombane. Njengoko iingubo zokufudumeza kunye neendawo ezishushu ezishukumisayo zikhankanyiwe apha ngasentla kwaye zisebenza ngombane, ke, ukwahluka kuhlala kuqhotyoshelwe kuzo kwaye akukhuthazwa ukusebenzisa izixhobo zombane ngaphandle kokwahluka. Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zinobunzima kwaye kufuneka ziphathwe ngononophelo.

18- Ukutyubhisha  

Ukutyibilika sesinye isiqwenga esibalulekileyo kwizixhobo zelebhu yemichiza. Zimbini iintlobo zokutyubhisha iTygon tubing kunye ne-vacuum tubing. Ukubhabha kweTygon luhlobo oluguquliweyo lweetyhubhu ngelixa i-vacuum tubing ilukhuni kwaye ibiyelwe ngodonga. Injongo yesityu esiguqukayo kukubonelela ngamanzi nangokusuka kwiifektha. Ngelixa ityhubhu yokucoca isetyenziselwa ukwenza i-vacuum ngokudibanisa umthombo we-vacuum nge-flask yecala-yengalo okanye ukuseta i-vacuum distillation. Isilumkiso esibalulekileyo kukuba ungaze unamathisele iTygon tubing kunye nomthombo wokucoca njengoko uya kuwa phantsi koxinzelelo oluphantsi.

I-19- MFP-3D Atomic Force Microscope

Inqanaba le-MPF3D le-XY evaliweyo-ye-XY yenqanaba le-100 yemvume yeemodeli ze-AFM kunye nokubekwa kwesampulu ngokuchanekileyo. Zonke iindlela ze-AFM ziyafikeleleka kusetyenziswa i-IgorPro interface yomsebenzisi, evulekileyo kwimikhwa yesiqhelo. Ukucaciswa kwale microscope kukuba imifanekiso kwimithombo yolwelo kunye nomoya. Ngaphaya koko, iskena esinaso sisikena esivulekileyo se-100 mm esivaliweyo.

20- I-Bench Glassware

Ngenxa yokunqongophala kwamaglasi eglasi omhlaba, le glassware ibiza kakhulu ngokungafaniyo nokuphendula ngeglasi (i-faneli yokwahlula iyodwa). Ihlala isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa, ukugcina kunye nokusebenza kwempendulo kunokuba uyenze. Iiglasi zebhentshi zibandakanya i-beaker, icala lengalo, iiflasks, isilinda ephumeleleyo, ifanele yokwahlula, igutyana, intonga yokugungxula, isitya sokuqaqambisa, kunye nezinye iintlobo zezixhobo ngokunjalo.

isiphelo

Izixhobo zeelebhu zekhemistry kubandakanya uluhlu olubanzi lwezixhobo nokuba zezobuchwephesha kunye noomatshini ezifunekayo ukwenza iinkqubo. Ezi zixhobo kunye nezixhobo zineentlobo ezizezinye ezisetyenziselwa iinjongo ezahlukeneyo. Kwakhona, ilebhu ye-chemistry ye-organic iya kuba nezixhobo ezahlukeneyo ngokweemfuno kunye nenqanaba leziko elithile kwaye le yingongoma ebalulekileyo ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo. Zonke izixhobo ezidweliswe apha ngasentla maziphathwe ngononophelo olukhulu njengoko ingumsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu kwaye kufuneka unikwe ingqwalaselo. Iingcingo zezixhobo zombane kufuneka ziphathwe ngononophelo olukhulu ngelixa zingena ziplaga njengoko zinokonakaliswa ngenye indlela kukungaphathwa kakuhle.

Ucaphulo
https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Organic-Chemistry/Equipment.htm

https://www.cnlabglassware.com/more-than-20-common-laboratory-apparatus-their-uses.html

https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Organic-Chemistry/Equipment/The-Edinburgh-Instruments-FLS900-Fluorescence-spectrometer.htm

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/Communityequip/Variac.shtml

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/Communityequip/Heatingmantle.shtml

https://www.fishersci.com/us/en/browse/90184195/laboratory-jacks

https://orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/index.shtml#:~:text=Glassware%20used%20for%20distillation%2C%20reflux,into%20each%20piece%20of%20glassware.&text=Standard%20taper%20glassware%20is%20more,as%20beakers%20and%20erlenmeyer%20flasks.

https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Organic-Chemistry/Equipment/MFP-3D-Atomic-Force-Microscope.htm

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/Communityequip/Tubing.shtml

https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Organic-Chemistry/Equipment/DESI-MS.html

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/index.shtml

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/Communityequip/Stirmotor.shtml

https://www.orgchemboulder.com/Technique/Equipment/Communityequip/Heatingmantle.shtml

https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Organic_Chemistry/Book%3A_Organic_Chemistry_Lab_Techniques_(Nichols)/01%3A_General_Techniques/1.02%3A_Glassware_and_Equipment/1.2C%3A_Clamping

https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Organic_Chemistry/Book%3A_Organic_Chemistry_Lab_Techniques_(Nichols)/01%3A_General_Techniques/1.02%3A_Glassware_and_Equipment/1.2A%3A_Pictures_of_Glassware_and_Equipment

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