What is boiling stone?
is an ore that was first discovered in 1756. Zeolite
is an aqueous reticulated aluminosilicate of alkali and alkaline earth metals, a general term for the zeolite family of minerals. The Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt discovered a group of natural silica-aluminate ores that boil when burned, hence the name "zeolite" (zeolit in Swedish). In Greek, it means "stone" (lithos), which means "boiling". Since then, zeolites (boiling stones
) have been intensively studied.
It includes more than 30 kinds of aluminosilicate minerals containing zeolite water of calcium and sodium as well as barium and potassium. Common minerals include sodium zeolite, calcium zeolite, square zeolite, bundle zeolite, turbidite zeolite, grossular zeolite, plagioclase zeolite, filamentous zeolite, etc.
A zeolite is a boiling stone
. It is a natural substance formed when volcanic magma erupts into specific lakes and seawater over hundreds of millions of years. Zeolite has five main properties: strong adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic, molecular sieve, acid and alkali resistance, high-temperature resistance, and corrosion resistance.
a. Using the strong adsorption of zeolite, it can be used to adsorb formaldehyde, VOC, and other harmful substances indoors. And it can be used repeatedly.
b. The ion-exchange properties of zeolite can be used in soil remediation to turn soil into treasure, etc.
c. Using zeolite's resistance to acid and alkali, high temperature, and corrosion, it is generally used in interior decoration coatings.
d. Boiling stones
are filled with tiny pores and channels. 1 cubic micron has 1 million nanoscale pores! Zeolite has a huge specific surface area. One gram of modified zeolite powder has a surface area equivalent to a soccer field!
e. Boiling stone is recognized by international research institutions as an environmentally friendly material that can cover the entire industry chain: green building materials, soil remediation, water pollution treatment, animal husbandry, beauty, and make-up, etc.
Structural feature of boiling stone
There are many different types of boiling stones, 36 of which have been discovered. They have a common characteristic of having a shelf structure, which means that within their crystals, molecules are linked together like a frame, forming many cavities in the middle. Because there are many water molecules in these cavities, they are water-bearing minerals. This water is expelled when exposed to high temperatures, such as when burned over a flame, and most zeolites expand and foam as if boiling. This is how zeolites got their name. Different boiling stones have different forms, such as square zeolite and rhodochrosite, which are generally axial crystals, sheet zeolite and pyrochlore, and smectite, which is needle-like or fibrous. All kinds of zeolites should be colorless or white if they are internally pure, but if they are mixed with other impurities, they will show various light colors. Zeolites also have a glassy luster. We know that water can escape from zeolite, but this does not destroy the internal crystal structure of the zeolite. Therefore, boiling stone can also reabsorb water or other liquids. So, this has become a feature that people use zeolite for. It is particularly found in sedimentary rocks formed by volcanic debris and is also found in soils.
Crystal structure of boiling stone
The crystal structure of zeolites can be divided into three components.
a. Aluminosilicate skeleton.
b. Pores and cavities within the skeleton containing exchangeable cations M.
c. Water molecules in the potential phase, which refers to zeolite water.
The structure of za zeolites is somewhat different from the skeletons of quartz and feldspar. The skeleton stria culture of quartz and feldspar is tighter, with a specific gravity of 2.6~2.7, while the skeleton structure of zeolite is more hollow with a specific gravity of 2.0~2.2. Its cavity can be as large as 47% after dehydration.
In the feldspar structure, metal cations are confined between the voids of the crystal skeleton composed of O ions. Unless the crystal is destroyed, these metal cations are hardly free to move. The exchange of Na or K by Ca must occur simultaneously with the substitution of Si and Al, i.e., pairwise substitution, which inevitably causes a change in the Si/AI ratio.
In feldspar-like structures, metal cations are located between relatively open interconnected voids with a specific gravity of 2.14 to 2.45, and cations can be exchanged with each other through the pathways of the structure without destroying its crystal skeleton. Hydrous sodalite and hydrargyrite were once considered to be zeolite group minerals.
In boiling stone structures, metal cations are located between pores or cavities where the crystal structure is large and interconnected. Therefore, cations are free to exchange through the pores without affecting their crystal skeletons, and such exchanges as 2(Na, K) (Ca2+), which occur readily in zeolites, cannot occur in feldspars. This form of exchange, which is probably the extreme form of ion exchange, is restricted to zeolites and similar minerals.
Main difference between natural boiling stone and synthetic boiling stone
The powerful adsorption and effective cation exchange capacity stability of synthetic boiling stones are superior to that of natural plagioclase zeolites. Natural and synthetic zeolites have two ways of saving nutrient input or reducing contaminants. The highly porous forms and the entrance channels into them contain water molecules, which form three-dimensional pore spheres for cation exchange.
How boiling stone adsorption works
The unique aluminosilicate skeleton of slanted hair zeolite is used to retain and adsorb water and nutrients until the plants are used on time. The result is similar to that of a common sponge. It can be used as the most economical adsorbent in nature. Zeolite has excellent and efficient adsorption capacity, making it a valuable mineral fertilizer. This allows zeolite to hold and effectively release more nutrients to fruits, vegetables, and plants over a longer period, preventing them from being wasted (soil nutrient loss). Long-term use results in more nutritious plants and crops.
Natural boiling stone has better ion exchange capacity and can be used as an excellent soil amendment for soils and crops, as well as an odor adsorbent for ammonium, toxins, and heavy metals in animals. Since NH4+ is nitrogen that can be used in fruits, vegetables, and trees, zeolites have a uniquely high affinity for NH4+. Zeolite absorbs more Ca2+ from natural phosphate rock, which gradually retards the release of ammonium ions and phosphate.
Boiling stones in distillation
There are many small air bubbles in the interior of the liquid and on the walls of the vessel, and the internal air pressure is equal to the saturation vapor pressure. As the temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure also increases. If the external pressure is exceeded, the bubbles cannot maintain equilibrium no matter how much they expand, and they suddenly expand and rise to the surface under buoyancy, bursting and releasing the vapor in them.
During boiling, small bubbles in the interior of the liquid and on the walls of the vessel act as a vaporizing core, which causes the liquid to vaporize around it. If the vaporization core is missing, even if the liquid exceeds the boiling point, it can not boil, which is a superheated liquid. Even if there are no small bubbles, some local molecules within the superheated liquid can still overcome the attraction between them to form tiny bubbles due to the rise and fall. The vapor pressure inside the bubble is very low because there are only a few molecules separated by a small distance. However, when the temperature is much higher than the boiling point, the vapor pressure in these tiny bubbles can exceed the external pressure and cause violent boiling, which is known as flash boiling.
Both zeolites and crushed porcelain tiles are porous materials. When they are placed in a liquid, they carry small bubbles on their surface, which are called vaporization cores. They, therefore, prevent the liquid from overheating and boiling. So, if you are going to boil continuously, remember to take them out and give the zeolites some air.
In short, boiling stones are added during distillation to disperse the heat and prevent flash boiling. Because zeolites have many small holes on their surface, they prevent flash boiling and solution splashing.
Application of boiling stone
a. Adsorbents and desiccants
d. Other applications (sewage treatment, soil conditioner, feed additive)
Natural zeolite is an emerging material that is widely used in industry, agriculture, and defense, and its uses are still being developed. Boiling stones are used as ion exchangers, adsorbent separators, desiccants, catalysts, and cement blending materials.
In petroleum and chemical industries, the boiling stone is used as catalytic cracking, hydrocracking of petroleum refining and chemical isomerization, reforming, alkylation and disproportionation of petroleum; gas and liquid purification, separation and storage agent; hard water softening, desalination agent; special desiccant (drying air, nitrogen, hydrocarbons, etc.).
In the light industry for paper, synthetic rubber, plastics, resins, paint filler, and quality color, etc.
It is used as an adsorbent separator and desiccant in national defense, space technology, ultra-vacuum technology, development of energy, electronic industry, etc.
In the building materials industry, it is used as cement water hardening active admixture, burned artificial light aggregate, and made lightweight and high strength plates and bricks.
In agriculture, it is used as a soil conditioner, which can play the role of fertilizer retention, water retention, and pest prevention.
In the livestock industry, it is used as an additive and deodorizer for feed (pigs and chickens), which can promote the growth of livestock and improve the survival rate of chicks.
Environmental protection is used to treat waste gas and wastewater, remove or recover metal ions from wastewater and waste liquid, and remove radioactive pollutants from wastewater.
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