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Clinometer used in laboratory

1. What is clinometer?
    1.1 Working principle of clinometer
    1.2 Feature of clinometer
    1.3 Application of clinometer
    1.4 Technical parameter of clinometer
2. Types of clinometer
3. How to buy clinometer?

What is clinometer?

Clinometer, also known as clinometer compass and electronic clinometer, is commonly used for horizontal angle, relative angle, and inclination measurement.

Precision angle measurement is an important item in geometric quantity measurement and a more fully developed branch of metrology science, and the accuracy of angle measurement has also improved by more than 10 times in the past 20 years. Angle measurement technology is divided into two kinds of static measurement and dynamic measurement, certain static measurement technology is still the basis of dynamic measurement, and some dynamic goniometry technology can realize static measurement. Many important measurement and control instruments, such as gyroscopic turntables, inertial guidance platforms, latitude and longitude instruments, star trackers, radar, missile launchers, space telescopes, high-precision CNC machine tools, robots, and other systems generally need angle sensors for measuring the absolute angle of rotation of the measured object relative to a reference orientation or relative to itself at different moments.

With the development of measurement and control technology, the system requires higher and higher measurement and control accuracy. However, there are still various problems in angle measurement, mainly: the accuracy is not high enough or can only get high accuracy in small angle measurement, the accuracy increases so that the size and weight of the product are too large, the measurement accuracy of the full perimeter absolute angle measurement device is not high, there are technical difficulties in miniaturization, small dynamic range, harsh requirements for key components, high requirements for the environment, low reliability, not easy to achieve integration with other instruments, etc. With the development of science and technology, military, aerospace, and a variety of industries in the national economy, the angle sensor has put forward higher and higher demand. In the same measurement accuracy conditions, the urgent need for low cost, small size, high reliability of the new generation of products. The new angle sensor will be measured by the input angle value from the space domain to the time domain, so as to completely get rid of the traditional photoelectric coding disk production and processing of the required high precision machining process (resulting in high production costs), to achieve the same precision conditions under the production costs greatly reduced, the product performance to price ratio greatly improved the purpose. The production cost of the new angle sensor is only about 1/5 of the traditional photoelectric coding disk, and a new angle sensor test prototype has been made. The new angle sensor adopts advanced DSP technology, which is convenient for online processing and long-distance operation, and the performance in dynamic measurement is incomparable to the photoelectric encoding disk. The new angle sensor is an ideal upgrade of the angle sensor. As the new angle sensor is a new angle measurement principle, completely without high precision machining technology, so that on the one hand, its production costs are greatly reduced, and greatly improve the reliability of its products, which is an extremely important performance for aerospace and a large number of civilian products, but also convenient for long-distance transmission, digital processing and storage, these unique properties are incomparable to existing technologies.

Working principle of clinometer

The count increases when the axis in the clinometer base is turned in one direction and decreases when the direction of rotation is changed. The count is related to the initial position of the clinometer. When the clinometer is initialized, its count is set to 0. By calculating the angle of rotation, position and speed can be easily measured.

Feature of clinometer

a. 4 directions can be fully measured 360 degrees.

b. When the inclinometer is inverted, the angle reading of the LCD display is automatically flipped up for easy reading.

c. Precision stainless steel measuring structure.

d. Do not need any special equipment for recalibration.

e. Optional measuring surface:
a)Plain measuring surface
b)Magnetic measuring surface
c)Wide measuring surface
d)Wide measuring surface with magnetism

Application of clinometer

a. Railway system: train manufacturing, control automation improvement, detection of rail level, etc.

b. Construction industry: pitch angle, roll angle and tilt angle of construction engineering equipment, etc.

c. Military automation: missiles, tanks, artillery, aircraft, ships, etc.

d. Industrial automation: metallurgy, chemical industry, petroleum exploration, light industry, coal, instrumentation, etc.

e. Automobile industry: four-wheel positioning, road control, etc.

f. Machinery industry: the horizontal situation and position of machinery table, lathe, and cutting table.

g. Hydraulic systems, such as dam monitoring.

h. Others: Biology, medicine, robotics, and other fields that need to measure angles and control angles.

Technical parameter of clinometer

Measuring range15~+15°
Measurement accuracy±0.1 %F.S
Water pressure resistance≥1MPa
Insulation resistance≥50MΩ

Types of clinometer

The most basic types of clinometer are plumbing clinometer, fixed clinometer and bubble clinometer.

Clinometer in surveying

A. Plumbing clinometer

In 1914, Michelson and Gale buried two water pipes 150 meters long and 15 cm in diameter 1.8 meters deep. The two pipes were approximately half-filled with water and placed in the direction of the meridian and dauphine circles. The maker used optical interferometry to measure the change in the relative displacement of the horizontal surface at both ends of the water pipe, so as to measure the tide height. Later, this method of long water pipe level determination was applied in the geodetic level survey. In 1973, Bowern made a 50-meter-long water pipe inclinometer for solid tide observation.

Its advantages are a long baseline water pipe tiltmeter so that the two ends of the water level measurement accuracy requirements are lower, easy to achieve and use differential measurement, reduces the impact of common mode interference, good system stability, less interference by the environment, so widely used in geodynamics, geodetic tilt, solid tide observation, fault deformation, and other observations.

The disadvantage is that the water pipe tilt meter due to its baseline is still long, so the damping of water flow increases, the self-oscillation period is larger, the frequency band is narrower, and can only measure the average effect of a larger range of tilt motion, and cannot help to observe the tilt motion of a specific point. In addition, the water pipe tilt meter in the container leakage, liquid decay, and temperature differences between the two ends of the water pipe is the main source of measurement error.

B. Fixed clinometer

Horizontal pendulum inclinometer
The pendulum with a swing axis has two installation methods: the pendulum axis is installed horizontally and swinging in the vertical plane is called the vertical pendulum; the pendulum axis is installed vertically and swinging in the horizontal plane is called the horizontal pendulum. The horizontal pendulum tilt meter can be traced back to 1830 Hengler invented a double-wire suspension system of a horizontal pendulum. Later Zollner improved the double filament suspension system, making the Zollner pendulum can be used for both seismic and slow-motion ground tilt measurement caused by ground changes.

The horizontal pendulum has mechanical amplification, and the gain is related to the angle i at which the pendulum axis deviates from the vertical line, and when i=0, its sensitivity is ∞, so the pendulum system cannot be stabilized. Practical to take a compromise, so that it has sufficient gain in a certain stable range. The use of a horizontal pendulum can make the pendulum's self-oscillation period increase, so that the moment required to push the pendulum rotation is reduced, so that it can measure the small inclination variable, but not make the instrument too large to meet the real needs.
Vertical pendulum inclinometer
The vertical pendulum tiltmeter is designed with the plumb line as the reference.

The vertical pendulum tilt meter uses the principle of a pendulum's plumb and is composed of three parts: spreader wire, pendulum rod, and weight block. The vertical pendulum is in the plumb state under the condition of no vibration, when the tilt change occurs, the pendulum balance position changes, the relative position between the pendulum and the bracket changes, the fixed piece of the capacitive displacement sensor is fixedly connected with the main body bracket, so that the spacing between the movable piece and also changes accordingly, and the tiny signal of the pendulum is converted into an electric signal and amplified through the sensor. Since the relative change of the ground tilt is very small, the relative offset of the pendulum is also very small, so there must be a high-precision micro-metering system to measure the position change of the pendulum.

C. Bubble clinometer

In 1968, Hansen designed a bubble tiltmeter that uses a mechanical feedback system to control the horizontal bubble so that it remains in its original equilibrium position. The bubble is confined to a 7.5 cm optical plane and an electrode located at the base of the bubble chamber detects the position of the bubble. The motion of the bubble causes the phase-sensitive detection circuit to generate a voltage signal, which in turn provides a drive current through the amplifier to the pair of permanent magnet solenoids driving the motor, which then applies a torque to the beryllium bronze rod supporting the bubble in the middle, causing it to bend and thus return the bubble to its zero position. Therefore, the driving current reflects the ground tilt signal that causes the bubble movement, which is the output signal of the bubble tilt meter.

How to buy clinometer?

ANTITECK provide lab equipment, lab consumable, manufacturing equipment in life sciences sector.
If you are interested in our clinometer or have any questions, please write an e-mail to, we will reply to you as soon as possible.

    AntiTeck Life Sciences Limited

    A1-519, XingGang GuoJi, Yingbin Road, Huadu, Guangzhou, China, 510810
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