What is electrical meter?
are short for energy meters, which are instruments used to measure electrical energy, also known as electric meters, fire meters, energy meters, and kilowatt-hour meters, referring to the measurement of various electrical quantities.
Electrical meters working principle
Electricity meter is a kind of modern-made device that integrates various high-tech technologies to measure electricity consumption. The current and voltage will be generated by the electricity consumption, and the converter and chip inside the smart meter will collect the current and voltage flowing through the circuit, and then the central processor will analyze and process the collected data, calculate the positive and negative, peak and valley0 values, etc., and finally, the calculated electricity consumption will be shown on the display.
When the power meter is connected to the circuit under test, alternating currents flow in the current coil and voltage coil, and these two alternating currents produce alternating fluxes in their cores respectively; the alternating fluxes pass through the aluminum disk, and eddy currents are induced in the disk; the eddy currents are subjected to the action of force in the magnetic field so that the disk gets torque (active torque) and rotates. The more power the load draws, the higher the electric currents passed in the current coil, the bigger the vortex generated in the disk, and the more torque is generated to rotate the disk. In short, the magnitude of torque is proportional to the power consumption of the load. The more power, the more torque, and the faster the disc rotates. When the aluminum disk rotates, it will be affected by the braking torque generated by the permanent magnet, and the direction of the braking torque is contrary to the main torque; the brake torque is the size which is proportional to the speed of the aluminum disk, and the quicker the aluminum disk rotates, the bigger the braking moment. When the active torque and braking torque reach a temporary balance, the aluminum disc will rotate at a uniform speed. Power consumption of the load is directly related to the rotation of the alumina disc. When the aluminum disk rotates, it drives the counter to indicate the power consumed. This is the simple process of the energy meter working.
Advantages of using electrical meters
has a variety of anti-theft functions, small starting current, no latent, wide load, low power consumption, straight error curve, and good stability in long-term operation. Single-phase local cost control smart meter, and beautiful appearance, small volume, lightweight, easy to install.
High accuracy of the electricity meter, the use of a fully electronic design, built-in imported special chip, the accuracy is not affected by frequency, temperature, voltage, high harmonics, and has a long life, the use of SMT technology, optimized circuit design, the whole machine factory without adjusting the circuit.
Low electricity meter power consumption, low power consumption design, reduce grid line loss. Pre-purchase power; IC card transfer data to achieve data read-back, including read-back total power, remaining power, accumulated power purchase in the meter, the total number of power purchases, and other information.
The meter is equipped with an overload alarm to power off and a remaining power alarm to remind users to purchase power in time.
Types of electrical meters
Direct current electrical energy meter
Direct current electrical energy meter
is designed for DC screens, solar power supply, telecommunication base stations, subway, and other applications. This series of meters can measure voltage, current, power, and forward and reverse power in a DC system. It can be used for local display and connected with industrial control equipment and computer to form a measurement and control system. The instrument can have an RS-485 communication interface, using the Modbus-RTU protocol.
AC electrical energy meter
An AC electrical energy meter is a meter used to measure the amount of electricity consumed over a certain period.
Electronic energy meter
Electronic energy meter is a physical instrument that is used to sample the voltage and current of the user's power supply in real-time, and to process and multiply the sampled voltage and current signals into a pulse output proportional to the electrical energy by using a special energy meter integrated circuit, which is displayed by a meter or a digital display.
Electronic energy meter has a single electrical energy metering function of the mechanical energy meter is difficult to be competent at the same time with time-sharing metering, load control, parameter presetting, measurement data collection, storage, and real-time transmission, and other functions, so the all-electronic new type of measuring apparatus came into being.
Multi-functional energy meter. No matter what kind of energy meter, to complete the measurement of electric energy, at least two functions must be available: one is to generate the power signal in line with the actual power; the other is to accumulate the power signal to obtain the electric energy value.
The electronic energy meter is no exception. Firstly, it samples the actual line voltage and current, and generates the power signal through a UI multiplier; secondly, it uses U/f (voltage/frequency) converter to change the power signal into a pulse signal with a certain frequency, and the counter accumulates the pulse signal to obtain the electric energy. The structure of the multi-functional energy meter is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Structure of electronic multifunctional energy meter
Figure 1 Structure of electronic multi-functional energy meter
The metering chip W in Figure 1 is a highly integrated special three-phase metering chip, which completes the generation of power signal P (i.e. UI product); the frequency conversion of P-f. And the pulse accumulation, time-sharing metering, phase loss processing, LCD, RS485 communication, and other functions are controlled by the microprocessor CPU.
Mechanical electrical meter
Although there are many types and models of mechanical energy meters (also called induction energy meters), their structures are similar, and they are composed of a measuring mechanism, compensation adjustment device, and auxiliary parts (housing, frame, end button box, nameplate). The following are several commonly available mechanically operated energy meters.
(1) Long-life energy meter. The life of the normally used mechanical energy meter depends mainly on the wear degree of its lower bearing. Then from putting into use the basic error of the energy meter due to the wear of the lower bearing, the duration of the time is the life of the energy meter. The lower bearing of the energy meter has a great influence on the service life of the meter.
The bearing structure of modern energy meters mainly has steel ball jewel bearings, graphite bearings, magnetic bearings, etc. Jewel bearing can be divided into single jewel bearing and double jewel bearing. Double gemstone bearings have less friction and better wear resistance. Magnetic bearings depend primarily on the repulsive force among the equally polar magnets to suspend rotary components in space. Magnetic bearings extend the service life of energy meters due to reduced mechanical wear. Most of the long-life energy meters that are gradually promoted and applied nowadays adopt a magnetic structure in the bearings.
Ordinary mechanical energy meters use single jewel bearings, and the service life is generally 5 years. The bearings of long-life energy meters can extend their service life to about 10 years due to the adoption of new materials and technologies such as magnetic bearings or graphite bearings or double gemstone bearings.
Smart electrical meter
Smart electrical meters are electricity meters that are widely used in households. In addition to viewing the information on the LCD, it can also be copied by infrared transmission, and the data can be transmitted to the service of the electric power department so that you can confirm the power consumption and pay the bill without leaving home. In addition to collecting power consumption information remotely, you can also monitor and control the behavior of power consumption. If the power consumption is abnormal, it can be turned off by remote control, and the backend software will send an alert directly to the management. It will make our life more convenient and efficient.
How to use electrical meters?
Electricity meter installation method
Single-phase meter is only one firewire and one zero wire, that is, the meter for household electricity, has four interfaces. Connection: from left to right, the leftmost connection into the fire line, over an interface to the fire line, and then over to the zero line; the last, that is, the rightmost connection out of the zero line.
Electricity meter reading
Electric meters, you may feel familiar and unfamiliar with it, but everyone's home has at least one electric meter. But many people only know that the meter is a meter used to measure the number of electricity, and do not know how to see the meter, therefore, in our real life, often see some people for a few degrees of electricity, that is, a few dollars and meter reading electrician staff conflict, or even refuse to pay the electricity bill. The following will tell you how to look at the smart meter, and how to look at the electricity meter. There are four ways.
The first: the general direct-in single-phase meter and three-phase meter can directly read the numbers minus the last reading for this stage of the electricity. Directly into the meter into the thicker line, careful observation did not go through the transformer connection.
The second: the three-phase meter is connected by way of a current transformer connected three-phase meter, the meter wiring has 10 wirings, to observe the current ratio of the connected current transformer, the current transformer nameplate, is a number than 5 marked out, such as 100/5150/5, etc., the meter reads the number multiplied by the current ratio is the measured power, the precise also add variable loss and line loss.
How to order electrical meters?
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