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Gas Purifier

Gas purifier used in laboratory

1. What is gas purifier?
2. Types of gas purifier
    2.1 Hydrogen purifier
        2.1.1 Hydrogen gas purification
    2.2 Argon purifier
        2.2.1 Argon purifier working principle
        2.2.2 Argon purifier features
    2.3 Other purifiers
3. How to buy gas purifier?

Argon Gas Purifier

What is gas purifier?

Gas purifier is a piece of laboratory equipment with a shell, air inlet pipe, air permeation pipe and exhaust pipe to form the water flow channel, and the partition to divide the equipment into several purification chambers. Usually, the lower part of the gas purification chamber is filled with water when in use while the ventilation tube is located underwater, which removes harmful gas components and dust through the impact collision of gas and water. The water purification circulation mechanism and water positioning mechanism are used to remove impurities in the water and maintain the water level at any time.

The gas purifier can be widely used in laboratory processes such as gas chromatography, elemental analysis, environmental analysis, organic synthesis, inorganic materials, polymer materials, semiconductor materials, fiber optic materials, physical chemistry, food analysis, etc.

The purifier has three independent gas path processes to purify the gas harmful impurities in a targeted manner. For example, a) Remove water. It can be filled with a color-changing molecular sieve or color-changing silica gel; b) Remove hydrocarbon (CH2). It can be filled with activated carbon; c) Remove CO2. It can be filled with caustic asbestos. According to different requirements, it can also be used in series to achieve the requirements of three-stage deep gas purification.

Types of gas purifier

Hydrogen purifier

Hydrogen is used in a wide range of applications in petroleum refining, chemical and fine chemicals, metal smelting, electronics, semiconductors, float glass, and many other fields.

Hydrogen is gaining more and more attention as an efficient and clean secondary energy source with outstanding advantages such as high calorific value, a wide range of sources, clean and carbon-emission-free (hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce water, and water electrolysis can produce hydrogen and oxygen again). However, the purity and impurities of the hydrogen obtained vary due to the different compositions of the raw gas obtained from the various hydrogen production methods. Meanwhile, the requirements for hydrogen gas vary from application to application. Therefore, hydrogen purification is very necessary.

The hydrogen purifier is a laboratory instrument used to provide a source of hydrogen for fuel cells, storage and purification of high-purity hydrogen, and a portable high-purity hydrogen source for various test instruments. Its main raw material is hydrogen storage alloy. The instrument can absorb and release hydrogen at room temperature and low pressure. More than 90% of its hydrogen storage capacity is released at a more stable pressure with a smooth output airflow.

Small hydrogen purifiers are suitable as a source of hydrogen for field analysis, test instruments such as standard frequency-calibrated hydrogen atomic clocks and gas chromatographs, and fuel cells. Medium hydrogen purifiers can be applied to the production of integrated circuits and semiconductors, powder metallurgy and chillers, etc.

Hydrogen gas purification

Hydrogen purification methods are mainly divided into pressure swing adsorption (PSA), cryogenic separation method, metal palladium membrane diffusion method, and metal hydride separation method.
A. Pressure swing adsorption of hydrogen purification
Most of the current applications use pressure swing adsorption (PSA) to purify hydrogen. PSA is the most mature hydrogen purification technology at this stage, as it can obtain hydrogen with 99.999% purity.

The basic principle of PSA separation technology is based on the different selective adsorption capacities of adsorbents for different gases at different pressures, and the use of periodic changes in pressure for adsorption and desorption, thus achieving the separation and purification of gases.

According to the different impurity types in the raw gas, the adsorbent can choose molecular sieve, activated carbon, activated alumina, etc. In recent years, PSA technology has gradually improved. The energy consumption can be reduced by increasing the number of equalization pressures. With the evacuation process, the recovery rate of hydrogen can be increased to 95%~97%.
B. Cryogenic separation of hydrogen purification
The physical method of cryogenic separation is used to separate and purify hydrogen by using the difference in relative volatility of different components in the feed gas. Compared with methane and other light hydrocarbons, hydrogen has high relative volatility. As the temperature decreases, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and other gases condense and separate before hydrogen.

The cost of the cryogenic separation method is relatively high compared to other methods. Cryogenic separation is inflexible for processing different feedstock components and even sometimes requires supplemental refrigeration. Therefore, it is usually suitable for purification processes where the hydrogen content is relatively low and where multiple products need to be recovered and separated.
C. Palladium membrane hydrogen purifiers
The principle of the palladium membrane hydrogen purifiers is based on the good selective permeability of the palladium membrane to hydrogen. In the temperature interval of 300°C to 500°C, hydrogen adsorbs on the palladium film and ionizes into protons and electrons. Under the effect of concentration gradient, hydrogen protons diffuse to the low hydrogen partial pressure side and recouple into hydrogen molecules on the palladium membrane surface. Due to the unique hydrogen permeation selectivity of the palladium composite membrane for hydrogen, almost all impurities other than hydrogen can be removed. The hydrogen obtained by the metal palladium membrane diffusion method has high purity and a high recovery rate (>99%).

Palladium membrane hydrogen purification technology requires strict impurity content in the raw gas, such as CO, H2O, O2, etc. These impurities need to be removed in advance to prevent the palladium membrane from failure due to poisoning. In addition, the production cost of palladium composite membrane is high, and the speed of hydrogen permeation is low, which cannot realize the large-scale industrial application.
D. Metal hydride separation method of hydrogen purification
Metal hydride method is to purify hydrogen by using the principle of reversible hydrogen absorption and discharge by hydrogen storage alloy. Under the condition of lowering the temperature and increasing the pressure, the hydrogen molecules are decomposed into hydrogen atoms under the catalytic effect of hydrogen storage alloys (rare earth, titanium, magnesium, and other alloys). Then the metal hydride is produced by diffusion, phase change, and chemical reaction, and the impurity gas is adsorbed between the metal particles. When the temperature is increased and the pressure is reduced, hydrogen gas (the purity can be as high as 99.9999%) comes out of the lattice after the impurity gas is expelled from between the metal particles.

This method of hydrogen purification has the functions of purification and storage, as well as the advantages of safety and reliability, simple operation, relatively low material price, and high purity of the output hydrogen. However, the metal alloy has problems such as easy chalking, slow release of hydrogen, and the need for high temperature.
E. Summary of hydrogen purification methods
Hydrogen purificationScale of application (Nm3/h)Features
Physical methodPressure swing adsorption (PSA)≥1,000Wide range of applications, low hydrogen recovery rate.
Cryogenic separation≥100,000High energy consumption and low product concentration.
Chemical methodMetal hydride method/For inert impurity removal only, high cost.
Catalytic method/Only for specific impurities such as CO, sulfide, etc.
Membrane SeparationInorganic membrane/Fundamental research
Organic Membrane≤10,000Small volume, poor selectivity, low product concentration.
Metallic membrane/Small size, high cost, easy to metricize.

Argon purifier


Argon purifier working principle

Argon purifiers must use argon as the carrier gas when purifying. Argon gas should be introduced first until a high purity argon gas stream is output before other gases can be introduced. The gas passes through a vessel containing titanium particles heated to 700 degrees. The oxygen and nitrogen are removed by a chemical reaction. The hydrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and water are then removed by passing through a tube containing copper oxide. The remaining carbon dioxide and water are removed as they pass through a molecular sieve. Titanium, copper oxide, and molecular sieves are each contained in a section of stainless-steel tubing, forming a "titanium tube", a "copper oxide tube" and a "molecular sieve tube". Eventually, the titanium, copper oxide, and molecular sieve are consumed. The purification efficiency decreases and the user must replace these tubes.

Argon purifier features

a. Argon gas purifier can purify non-pure gas. The maximum flow rate is 10L/min, and the purification effect is better at a low flow rate.

b. Impurities that can be removed are oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and moisture (in the range of 30-50 VPM) in concentrations as low as less than 1 VPM in total.

c. Easy to use. The self-sealing plug-in gas connection is easy to use and ensures that the user does not expose the purifier to air when it is disconnected from the feed gas.

d. Safe to use. Dual thermocouple temperature control with remote status indication and fault alarm system.

e. Low maintenance cost. The program with a modular design that can change quickly.

f. Reliability. Built-in protection against any fluctuations in ambient temperature or power surges, providing long-term optimum performance and reliability.

g. Flexibility. Optional pressure sensor interfaces with microcontroller to indicate system pressure and shut down the chamber in case of gas supply failure.

Other purifiers

Other gas purification system
Nitrogen gas purifier / N2 purifier
Helium gas purifier
Acetylene gas purifier
Gas purifiers semiconductor
Rare gas purifier
Inert gas purifier
Drierite gas purifier
Nanochem purifier

How to buy gas purifier?

ANTITECK provide lab equipment, lab consumable, manufacturing equipment in life sciences sector.
If you are interested in our gas purifier or have any questions, please write an e-mail to [email protected], we will reply to you as soon as possible.

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