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Kipp’s Apparatus

Kipp’s apparatus used in laboratory

1. What is Kipp’s apparatus
    1.1 Working principle of Kipp’s apparatus
    1.2 Structure of Kipp’s apparatus
    1.3 Features of Kipp’s apparatus
2. Use of Kipp’s apparatus
    2.1 Kipps apparatus uses
    2.2 Kipp’s apparatus maintenance
3. How to buy Kipp’s apparatus?

What is Kipp’s apparatus?

Kipp's apparatus is a gas generator, also known as  Kipp’s gas generator or hydrogen generator. It is often used in experiments where solid particles and liquids are reacted to produce a gas. A typical experiment is the production of hydrogen gas using dilute sulfuric acid and zinc pellets. It was invented by the Dutch scientist Petrus Jacobus Kipp (1808~1864) and named after him.

The Kipp generator is a common laboratory gas generating device, as well as one of the most common and widely used chemical glass instruments. It consists of a spherical funnel, a container, and a gas guide tube. It is usually applied to the reaction between lumpy solid and liquid at room temperature to make gas, such as hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, etc. However, it cannot be used for experiments on powder drugs with liquids.

Kipp’s apparatus separates the hydrogen and oxygen in water by electrolysis. Oxygen is exhausted into the atmosphere and hydrogen is collected as output gas. The unit consumes only water and electricity to produce hydrogen. It can produce gas on demand at low pressure, minimizing the amount of hydrogen stored in the system.

Working principle of Kipp’s apparatus

a. Open the piston. The acid flows down from the spherical funnel and reacts with the zinc grains to produce hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is discharged from the gas conductor.

b. When the piston is closed, the pressure inside the container increases, pressing the acid back into the spherical funnel, making the acid and zinc particles out of contact and stopping the reaction.

c. Kipp's apparatus can react and stop the reaction at any time.

A. Hydrogen production by electrolysis of pure water

a. Feed the required electrolytic water into the anode chamber of the electrolyzer. The resistivity of the electrolytic water should be greater than 1MΩ/cm. The electrolytic water can also be deionized water or secondary distilled water used in the electronic or analytical industries.

b. After the electricity is applied, the water is immediately decomposed at the anode: 2H2O=4H++ 2O2-. The decomposed negative oxygen ions (O2-) are released at the anode to form oxygen (O2), which is discharged from the anode chamber and then carries some water into the water tank.

c. The water can be recycled. Oxygen is put into the atmosphere through the small hole in the top cover of the water tank. The hydrogen protons, in the form of hydrated ions, pass through the SPE ion membrane under the force of the electric field and reach the cathode to absorb electrons to form hydrogen gas. The hydrogen is discharged from the cathode chamber and enters the gas-water separator, where most of the water carried out from the electrolyzer is removed. The hydrogen gas containing a small amount of water is then absorbed by the dryer, and the purity reaches over 99.999%.

B. Hydrogen production by electrolysis of lye

The working principle of lye electrolysis for hydrogen production is the traditional diaphragm lye electrolysis method. The conductive medium in the electrolysis tank is an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. After applying direct current to both poles, the water molecules immediately undergo an electrochemical reaction, producing oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode.

Structure of Kipp’s apparatus

The hydrogen generator consists of an electrolysis cell, pure water tank, hydrogen and water separator, collector, dryer, sensor, pressure regulating valve, switching power supply, and other components. Only pure water needs to be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen. When energized, the cathode of the electrolytic cell produces hydrogen and the anode produces oxygen. The hydrogen enters the hydrogen and water separator and the oxygen is discharged to the atmosphere. Hydrogen gas enters the dryer after dehumidification. It is adjusted to the rated pressure (0.02~0.45MPa adjustable) by the pressure regulator valve and adjustment valve and output by the outlet. The hydrogen production pressure of the electrolysis cell is controlled by the sensor at about 0.45MPa. When the pressure reaches the set value, the power supply to the electrolysis cell is cut off. When the pressure drops and falls below the set value, the power supply is restored.

Features of Kipp’s apparatus

a. Zero-pole pitch and high-activity SPE catalytic electrode.

b. Structure of multi-pole electrolytic cell with excellent performance in mass and heat transfer chemical process.

c. Superior compound electrolytic cell selection materials for electrochemical properties, corrosion resistance, passivation resistance, etc.

d. Complete, perfect, and reliable electrical automatic control system.

e. With self-activating long-lasting trace oxygen remover to improve gas purity.

f. The instrument continuously monitors the water level, providing protection against lack of liquid. Stop when the water level is too low to stop the damage to the instrument.

g. With the pool core cooling system, which can effectively control the electrolysis temperature, and continue to work reliably under full load.

h. Equipped with liquid level LED backlight. Even in a dark space, you can clearly observe the water level.

i. Equipped with a liquid barrier to stop the liquid from entering the gas path while reducing the gas moisture.

j. A front transparent purification chamber is provided. A saturation color change indicator is placed on the front panel of the instrument, so you can know the condition of the cartridge at any time.

k. Equipped with removable purification tube cartridge, which is more convenient to clean and purify.

l. Equipped with two levels of the pressure control system. The system has a highly sensitive photoelectric pressure controller and pressure switch, and the overpressure can directly terminate the electrolysis. It provides double-layer protection, which is safe and reliable.

Use of Kipp’s apparatus


Kipps apparatus uses

A. Preparation

a. Take the instrument out of the packing box. Check for any damage caused by improper transportation. Verify the instrument spare parts.

b. Add electrolyte.
a) Take out all the potassium hydroxide from the spare parts and pour it into the container.
b) Add 500mL of secondary distilled water or deionized water.
c) Stir thoroughly and wait for the electrolyte to cool completely before use.
d) Open the outer lid of the reservoir and remove the inner lid. The inner lid is for transport to prevent leakage and should not be run with the inner lid when in use. Save the inner cap for use when transporting again.
e) Pour the cooled electrolyte into the reservoir.
f) Add secondary distilled water or deionized water again. Do not exceed the upper water level and do not go below the lower water level.
g) Screw on the outer cap and use it after 10 minutes.

B. Machine usage

a. Plug in the power supply.

b. Turn on the power switch. At this time, the instrument pressure gauge starts to rise. Check the electrolysis on the instrument panel. The indicator lights up (green) and the flow rate indication should be around 1000. Within 5 minutes, the pressure indication (pressure gauge) should reach 0.4MPa and the pointer indication should drop to 0. This means that the instrument system is working normally and the self-test is qualified.

c. If the flow rate indicator is still at 1000 and the pressure indicator is at 0 after 5 minutes, the switch is not tightened and there is air leakage. Please continue to tighten the switch to make the instrument pressure and flow rate to meet the qualified standards.

d. When the instrument is in use, you should pay attention to whether the flow indication is consistent with the amount of gas used by the chromatograph. If the flow indication exceeds the actual amount of chromatograph larger, you should stop to check the leakage.

e. You should periodically check the silica gel in the filter for discoloration. If it discolors, replace it immediately or clean it and reinstall it. When you remove the silicone, you should unscrew the filter and its top cover. After replacing the silicone, you should tighten the filter top cover as well as tighten the filter after putting it on the base. Remember to check if there is air leakage.

f. After the instrument is used for a period of time, the electrolyte will gradually decrease. When the electrolyte level is close to the lower limit, it should be refilled in time by adding secondary distilled water. When adding liquid or water, the liquid level should not exceed the upper limit and should not be lower than the lower limit.

g. When the instrument is used for six months or more, please replace the electrolyte solution. Please note that the concentration of potassium hydroxide solution used in the hydrogen generator is about 10%.

h. Do not run the instrument at no load when the pressure is 0. The no-load operation will burn out the electrolytic cell and the switching power supply components, thus causing damage to the whole instrument.

Kipp’s apparatus maintenance

a. Check the purification tube, replace the desiccant inside, the gasket of the pipeline, etc.

b. Check whether there is water inside the vacant buffer tube and whether there is back alkaline condition.

c. Clean and pump out the original electrolyte. Fill the electrolytic cell with pure water and clean it twice.

d. During the cleaning process, turn on the hydrogen generator for a while to make the cleaning effect better.

How to buy Kipp’s apparatus?

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If you are interested in our Kipp’s apparatus or have any questions, please write an e-mail to, we will reply to you as soon as possible.

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    A1-519, XingGang GuoJi, Yingbin Road, Huadu, Guangzhou, China, 510810
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