Urine test strip, 5 millimetre-wide plastic or paper strip, is used in conjunction with urine analysis test strips for semi-quantitative or qualitative detection of biochemical components in human urine samples by medical institutions. It is mainly available for urine 8 items,urine 9 items , urine 10 items, urine 11 items, urine 12 items, urine 13 items and 14 urine items, etc., which can provide reference for clinical examination and diagnosis. Currently detectable items include urobilinogen, bilirubin, ketone bodies, occult blood, protein, nitrite, leukocytes, glucose, specific gravity, pH, vitamin C, microalbumin, creatinine, urinary calcium, etc.
Bilirubin test strips can help to test bilirubin, which is the product of the decomposition and destruction of the mononuclear cell system in the liver, spleen and bone marrow by senescent red blood cells in the blood circulation. When there is a large amount of conjugated bilirubin in the urine, it is called bilirubinuria. The urine is dark yellow, and it turns yellow after shaking. If it is placed in the air for a long time, bilirubin in urine dipstick is oxidized to biliverdin, and the urine can turn brown-green. Bilirubinuria is common in acute jaundice hepatitis, acute cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and pancreatic head cancer.
Creatinine is the product of muscle metabolism in the human body and is mainly excreted by glomerular filtration. Creatinine concentration can be detected by creatinine test strips to reflects the filtration function of the glomerulus.
Biliary pigments in urine include bilirubin, urobilinogen and urobilin. People with abdominal distension, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should perform a urobilinogen test. Results of uro in urine dipstick must be analyzed together with urinary bilirubin test results:
Ketones urine test strips are available to roughly quantitatively measures the content of ketone bodies in urine. The amount of ketone in urine is judged by color depth shown on the ketogenic test strips. The darker the color, the more ketone bodies in urine, and the lighter the color, the more ketone bodies in urine less. Ketone bodies are products of fat metabolism. For example, the ketogenic diet is to increase the ketone body, so as to achieve the effect of weight loss. However, if ketone are relatively high, there is the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Ascorbic in routine urine test is actually vitamin C contained in urine. As a strong reducing agent, it can inhibit the redox reaction in the detection of various urine components, which often results in false negative test results and interferes with clinical diagnosis and treatment. It is a monitoring item. When it increases significantly, it may interfere with the measurement of urine glucose, protein, occult blood and other items. It is not used as an indicator for clinical diagnosis and observation.
The urine of healthy people contains almost no glucose or only a trace amount. If the blood glucose concentration is high and exceeds the reabsorption capacity of the renal tubules, the exceeding glucose can be filtered out from the glomeruli, increasing the glucose in the urine, and the urine The sugar qualitative test was positive.
Normally, glomerular filtration membrane only allows the passage of small molecules of proteins, such as lysozyme and immunoglobulin light chain, while the middle molecular weight albumin and macromolecular globulin cannot pass through. The proximal convoluted renal tubule can reabsorb most of the small molecule protein in the original urine, so the protein content in normal urine is very small. According to the mechanism of proteinuria, it can be divided into prerenal, renal, postrenal and physiological proteinuria.
Microalbumin urine test strips are used for in vitro semi-quantitative detection of albumin in urine. Urine protein upper limit of normal upper limit of normal age mg/24h. There is generally no gender difference, and prepubertal girls excrete more protein in their urine. The 24-hour urine protein micro-measurement is abnormal when it exceeds the upper limit of normal.
There may be a small amount of leukocytes in normal urine, but the urine leukocyte esterase is negative. A positive esterase test is highly suggestive of a urinary tract infection. Certain kidney diseases, such as lupus nephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, and renal transplant rejection, can also increase white blood cells in the urine. Trichomonas urolithiasis and some oxidative substances and drug metabolites in urine can cause false positives; eosinophils and histiocytes can also cause false positives. High levels of protein, glucose, or vitamin C in the urine can lead to false negatives. If urine leukocyte esterase is positive, further microscopy must be performed to confirm the presence of leukocytes.
Hematuria is common in acute glomerulonephritis, urinary calculi, renal tuberculosis, urinary tumors, urinary trauma, acute pyelonephritis and cystitis; other systemic diseases, such as acute leukemia, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura , hemophilia, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, etc. can also appear hematuria.
Normal urine is weakly acidic, about 6.0. Depending on the food, the pH varies from 4.5 to 8.0. The judgment of pH measurement results is more difficult than the judgment of other experimental results, because the fluctuation range of urine pH is large and fast, and the pH of normal urine and patient's urine is not significantly different, so the use of pH alone is of little significance. But when combined with other clinical data, it can become important data.
Urine specific gravity refers to the ratio of the weight of urine to the same volume of pure water at 4°C, which depends on the concentration of dissolved substances in the urine and is proportional to the total amount of solids. The working principle of the test strip is that the electrolyte copolymer releases different concentrations of hydrogen ions according to the pH of the urine. The hydrogen ions combine with the acid-base indicator, and the color changes. Determination of urine specific gravity, expressed in SG, with every 0.005 as a gradient, the lowest is 1.000 and the highest is 1.030. Normally, the kidneys can adjust the excretion of water according to the body's demand for water. The specific gravity of urine can fluctuate greatly due to different conditions such as diet and drinking, sweating and urination. If specific gravity of urine is out of normal range, there is risk of acute kidney injury or uremia.
When the urinary tract above the bladder is infected by bacteria, nitrate in urine from food or metabolism can be reduced to nitrite by nitrate reductases produced by many Gram-negative bacteria. A positive nitrite indicates a urinary tract infection. Negative results may be caused by non-nitrate consuming bacteria, frequent urination, urine dilution, etc. Therefore, urinary tract infection cannot be ruled out.
Urinary calcium refers to the determination of the concentration of calcium in the urine for 24 hours. Using the principle of dry chemical reaction, the calcium ions in the urine react with the substances on the reagent block. The calcium ion concentration is related to the color of the reagent block. The paper is compared with the standard colorimetric card to determine the calcium ion concentration range. Increased urinary calcium can be seen in excessive sunlight exposure, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, vitamin D toxicity, multiple myeloma, leukemia, malignant bone metastases, renal tubular acidosis, and ingestion. Into the chloride, calcitonin, corticosteroids, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone and other drugs. Decreased urinary calcium can be seen in late pregnancy, hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, nephrotic syndrome, acute pancreatitis, bone malignancy, hypothyroidism, and intake of diuretics, estrogen, neoplastic drugs, oral contraceptives, etc.
Routine urinalysis is a general examination of urine. It is not only of great significance for the observation of the diagnosis and curative effect of urinary system diseases, but also has important value for the diagnosis and prognosis judgment of other system diseases. The most common urinalysisis is 10 parameter urine test.
·10 parameter urine test strips: used to detect glucose, pH value, ketone, nitrite, bilirubin, protein, occult blood, urobilinogen, specific gravity, and white blood cells in urine.
·11 parameter urine test strips: used to detect glucose, pH value, ketone, nitrite, bilirubin, protein, occult blood, urobilinogen, specific gravity, white blood cells and ascorbate in urine.
·12 parameter urine test strips: used to detect glucose, pH value, ketone, nitrite, bilirubin, protein, occult blood, urobilinogen, specific gravity, white blood cells, creatinine and microalbumin in urine.
·14 parameter urine test strips: used to detect glucose, pH value, ketone, nitrite, bilirubin, protein, occult blood, urobilinogen, specific gravity, white blood cells, ascorbate, creatinine, microalbumin and calcium in urine.
Urine sugar test strip is a special test strip available for diabetic patients to check their own urine sugar. The strips are mainly composed of glucose oxidase and peroxidase. When the test strip meets urine, it will quickly turn light blue, light green, brown or dark brown in sequence due to the amount of glucose in the urine.
Urine protein test strip, mainly composed of tetrabromophenol blue and citric acid, is a test strip used for urine protein determination. It is simple to operate and does not require the guidance of a doctor. You can test whether there is protein in the urine and whether the urine protein is positive or weak by operating according to the instructions for use.
Urine triple test paper is mainly composed of glucose oxidase, peroxidase, tetrabromophenol blue, citric acid and methyl red.
Urine test strips can indirectly detect some diseases, including the presence of elevated blood sugar, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and elevated red blood cells in the urine indicating the presence of urinary system infections, urinary system stones, urinary system tumors, and urinary system damage. Elevated white blood cells in urine are more common in urinary tract infections, co-infections with other diseases of the urinary system, or urine pollution. Elevated urinary bilirubin or urobilinogen also indicates liver and gallbladder-related diseases, such as biliary obstruction and biliary calculi. Others, including ketone in the urine, also suggest diabetes or starvation conditions. Mucus threads in urine can also indicate some diseases, and nitrite or other components in urine can also indicate clinical diseases. Therefore, in clinical practice, urine routine and urine culture should be used to further improve the examination of urinary system-related ultrasound, CT, B-ultrasound or abdominal CT to identify diseases that may cause abnormal urine. HCG rapid urine test strips are able to detect pregnancy.
1. Immerse the test strip in freshly stirred urine and take it out in time;
2. Place the test strip against the edge of the container to drip excess urine or place it on a paper towel to absorb excess liquid to reduce interference.
(1) Compare the color with the standard color code within the time specified on the color code, judge and read the result;
(2) For instrument operation, refer to the instruction manual of the urine analyzer used.
4. When the test strip is visually inspected, the response result is valid within 60 seconds, and invalid after 60 seconds.
·Precautions: Due to the unstable nature of urine test strips, if the reagent is carried in the air for a long time, the bacteria in the air will multiply on the reagent, and the oxidation of oxygen in the air will affect the final urine test result.
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