What is world globe?
The globe is a model of the earth. World globe is a model of the earth, made in imitation of the shape of the earth and reduced to a certain scale for easy understanding of the earth. Deformations of length, area, direction, and shape are provided on the globe, so the interrelationship of various scenes observed from the globe is overall and approximately correct.
History of world globe
History of world globe
The world's earliest surviving globe was invented and made by the German navigator and geographer Behaim
in 1492. It is now preserved in the Nuremberg Museum. 1480, when Behaim (1459~1507) first visited Portugal as a Flemish trading merchant, he claimed to be a student of the Nuremberg astronomer Miller, and so became the navigational advisor of John II. At that time, navigators used astrolabes to determine the heights of the sun, moon, and stars to calculate time and latitude. The use of brass instead of wooden astrolabes was probably initiated by him. He may have sailed with D. Kau to the west coast of Africa (1485~1486.) After returning to Nuremberg in 1490, he began to draw a globe of his design with the assistance of the painter Glockendon and completed a globe of 20 inches in diameter in 1492. Because this world globe
was based on a map from Ptolemy's "Geographical Guide," the topography of the world was both inaccurate and outdated. On this globe, the Indian Ocean is the ocean that extends east to west, especially the west coast of Africa, and the number of errors is astounding. Interestingly, however, the globe he drew on the eve of the discovery of North America provided some useful ideas about geography for the people of the time.
The early world globes
were made by printing out narrow triangular blocks, which were then cut out and glued to a wooden ball. The most famous German globe maker was the Nuremberg scholar Joanhans Schoner. The two globes he made in the early 16th century have been preserved to the present day.
World globe in China
The production of Chinese globes began in the Yuan Dynasty
, supervised by the Western astronomer Zamaludin for the Yuan court. The sphere reflects the distribution of sea and land on the earth's surface and is a primitive drawing method. After the Italian missionary Matteo Ricci came to China during the Ming Wanli period, he made the globe himself to teach the ancient Greek theory of the earth circle to China, and authored the "Kunjiao Wanguo Quanzhou". Influenced by him, the scholar Li Zhizao made a globe in 1603, the thirty-first year of the Ming Dynasty. Around the third year of Chongzhen (1630), the court also made a globe. These globes were drawn with a network of latitude and longitude, expanding the latitude of only 27 observation points on China's previous globes, including the entire latitude of the earth at the equator, the Tropic of Cancer, and the southern Arctic Circle, and also filling the gap of China's previous ignorance of longitude, and labeling the five continents so that the people of that dynasty could learn about the new knowledge of the great geographic discoveries of the West. Following Ming, the science-loving Kangxi Emperor introduced, made, and skillfully used many scientific instruments from the West, making his knowledge of astronomy, geography, and mathematics surpass that of other rulers in the past. Only three globes made in the Ming and Qing dynasties exist, two of which are in the National Palace Museum and one in the British Museum in London.
Function of world globe
The world globe is a model of the earth. Although it cannot represent various geographical things and phenomena as detailed as a map, nor can it fully reflect the actual situation of the earth. But it can avoid the errors and distortions in length, direction, area, or shape that exist on the map, and can help us clarify many relevant earth concepts and obtain the main concept of the earth’s body.
Demonstration of the Earth's rotation deflection force
To observe the Earth's rotation deflection force, we can use a globe so that the earth's axis is perpendicular to the earth’s plane, the globe’s north pole up, first in the northern hemisphere at high latitude one to two drops of red ink, red ink in the case of the globe does not turn, it will flow along the longitude to low latitude and leave an ink trail. Then you turn the globe from west to east, and then one to two drops of blue ink at the original spot at high latitude, you will find that the direction of blue ink flow has changed to the right compared to the original direction of red ink flow. The same will turn the globe sideways, the south pole up, with the same method for two demonstrations, comparative observation, can occur in the blue ink flow track compared with the red ink flow track, deflected to the left.
Then the globe will be stationary flat, the earth's axis and parallel to the earth's level, a point on the equator with one to two drops of red ink, found that the flow of red ink along the equatorial line; then at the original point and then one to two drops of blue ink, and turn the globe, found that the blue ink flow track with the red ink, indicating that its flow track is not affected by the rotation of the earth. Therefore, it can be proved that under the influence of the earth's rotation deflection force, the horizontal motion of the object deflection occurs as follows: right deflection in the northern hemisphere left deflection in the southern half of the sky, and no deflection on the equator.
Demonstration of day and night change
The sun is represented by an electric lamp or a strong flashlight so that it is in the same plane as the spherical center of the globe. The globe rotates from west to east around the earth's axis (the north end of the earth's axis points due north). The period of rotation of the Earth (360° of rotation) is one sidereal day, i.e. 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds. When the Earth rotates from west to east, the globe rotates in an anti-clockwise direction when viewed over the North Pole; it rotates clockwise when viewed over the South Pole, and it rotates from west to east when viewed over the equator, and these three representations are consistent. Since the earth (globe) is an opaque sphere, the sun (electric lamp or strong flashlight) can only illuminate half of the earth at the same time, i.e., the day is dayward and night is backward. The hemisphere illuminated by the sun (electric lamp or strong flashlight) is called the day hemisphere, and the hemisphere illuminated at midnight is called the night hemisphere. The line of demarcation between the two spheres (two) is combined into a circle called the morning and evening line (circle). The earth (instrument) constantly from west to east rotation, we will find that the sun's direct point from east to west sweep, morning and evening circles also moved regularly from east to west, so the earth's day and night are constantly changing. The globe keeps rotating from west to east, so it can demonstrate the regular day and night change on the earth.
Determination of local time and zone time
At the north pole end of the world globe, there is a circular metal sheet made of "time gauge", half of which is painted black to indicate night, and the other half is kept in the original metal color to indicate day. In the two semicircles, every 15 ° in the counterclockwise direction is inscribed with 24 moments. The "time gauge" on the globe can be used to determine local time and regional time.
Determining the relative orientation between two points on the Earth
To determine the orientation of a place on the earth relative to the local (another place), first, determine the local meridian on the world globe; then determine the direct line from the local to a certain place, and finally, measure the angle between the local meridian and the direction line. That is the orientation of a place relative to the local. The specific measurement method is as follows.
a. Use a large head pin inserted in the local location on the world globe, and then turn the globe, so that the large head pin and the radius scale (i.e., the globe's semicircular arc bracket) coincide; the radius scale is the local south-north direction line, that is, the prime meridian.
b. Determine the direct line from the local to a certain place.
c. Using a protractor to measure the local meridian and the local direction line to a certain place between the angle degrees, and the attached orientation can be done. The specific name of the orientation is shown in the figure on the right to measure the distance between the two places on the surface.
Measuring the field distance between two places on the surface
a. Using a tight and small stretch of thin wire, thin metal wire, or paper strips, measure the equatorial circumference (in millimeters) on the world globe and then follow the formula for the scale of the globe (some globes have been marked with a standard scale, this step can be omitted). The linear scale of the globe = distance on the map/field distance, that is, the equatorial perimeter on the globe (mm) / the actual length of the Earth's equator (that is, forty billion seven hundred and fifty-seven million seven hundred and forty-four thousand mm), you can calculate the linear scale of the earth globe).
b. The actual horizontal (actually spherical) distance between two places can be calculated by dividing the distance (mm) of any two places on the globe by the linear scale of the world globe using the above method. You can also measure the distance between any two places on the globe (arc length), and then use the scale of the equatorial circle on the globe to measure the radian of this distance, and then multiply the measured radian by 111.1 km (111.1 km is the arc length of each degree on the equator, which is 40076 km divided by 3600) to find the actual horizontal distance between the two places.
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