Content1. What is a laboratory water bath?
1.1 What is the principle of water bath?
1.2 Laboratory water bath temperature range
1.3 Advantages of water baths in laboratory
1.4 Disadvantages of water bath in laboratory2. Types of water bath
2.1 Circulating water baths
2.2 Non-circulating water baths
2.3 Shaking water baths
2.4 Digital water bath
2.5 What is a cooling water bath?
2.6 What is the purpose of water bath for histology?3. How to use water bath in laboratory?
3.1 Use of laboratory water bath
3.2 Laboratory water bath maintenance4. Laboratory water bath diagram5. How to buy a laboratory water bath?
What is a laboratory water bath?
Water baths are a kind of laboratory equipment made from a container filled with heated water. The laboratory water bath
is used to culture samples in water at a constant temperature over a long period of time. Though some water baths
have their temperature controlled by a current passing through a reader, most water baths in the lab have a digital or an analog interface to allow users to set the desired temperature. Applications of a water bath
include warming of reagents, melting of substrates, or incubation of cell cultures. As it enables certain chemical reactions to occur at high temperatures and with the lack of open flame preventing ignition, the water bath is the preferred heat source for heating flammable chemicals. Different types of water bath lab equipment
are used depending on the application. For the water bath, it can be used up to 99.9 °C. When the temperature is above 100 °C, alternative methods such as oil bath, silicone bath, or sand bath may be used.
What is the principle of water bath?
Working principle: the sensor transfer water temperature in the device to resistance value is amplified and is compared by an integrated amplifier, then outputs the control signal, efficiently controls the average heating power of the electric heating tube, and maintains water at a constant temperature.
The water bath is a kind of heating method in which water is used as a heat transfer medium in a chemical laboratory. The vessel to be heated into the water, the boiling point of water is 100℃, the method is suitable for heating temperatures below 100℃.
When heating in the laboratory, sample containers are usually placed on a heat source. If some containers, such as unheated glassware or ceramic containers, are placed on the heat source directly, they will crack because of being unevenly heated by fast-rising temperatures or poor heat transfer. In view of this situation, relevant experimental samples should be treated with hot water baths.
The hot water bath laboratory is to put the heated container in the water bath device and let the temperature of it slowly rise to a certain degree. Then let the container slowly cool, improving the heat transfer performance of the container and making the container quality uniform. The water bath is a hot bath method using water as a hot bath substance.
Laboratory water bath temperature range
For basic water baths, the temperature range is from 30℃ to 100℃.
The water bath equipment
is often used in laboratories to heat flammable compounds that may ignite if exposed to an open flame, as well as to maintain cell lines. To maintain the temperature constant, a heated circulating water bath
keeps the sample in motion while heating. Samples that need heating above 100°C need to be heated in an oil, sand, or silicone bath.
The oil bath
is a hot bath method using oil as a hot bath substance. It is basically an oil tank heated by a hot plate and mainly acts to heat chemical reactions. In the laboratory, the most commonly used oil is high-temperature silicone oil as well as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, and so on. Different laboratories-used oil at different temperatures. High-temperature silicone oil has the temperature with colorless, odorless, non-toxic imported silicone oil, high-temperature resistance, and boiling point up to 300 °C. Methyl silicone oil has excellent heat resistance, oxidation resistance, and low-temperature resistance, and can be used in the temperature range of -50 ~ 220 degrees Celsius for a long time, with the highest boiling point up to 60 degrees Celsius. Oil baths provide more uniform heat compared to other chemistry-heated baths. Laboratory oil baths are usually made of aluminum or stainless-steel mold.
The sand bath
is a hot bath method using sand as a hot bath substance. It is characterized by variable temperature control. The temperature is properly distributed over the entire heating surface. Sand baths generally use yellow sand because its temperature can be up to or over 350°C. The operation method of a sand bath is basically the same as a water bath. As the heat transfer of sand is weaker than water and oil, containers should be partially buried in the sand. When placed, the container needs to be covered with a thick layer of sand, but the bottom of the sand layer should be thin. The heating surface is made of aluminum and is very easy to clean. It has precise control capability in any temperature range, even at low temperatures close to room temperature.
Advantages of water baths in laboratory
The flame temperature of the alcohol lamp is as high as several hundred degrees Celsius. If the material is heated directly by the fire of the alcohol lamp in the experiment, the melting process of the material cannot be recorded and observed. The lab water bath provides a smooth way to heat the sample, avoiding the excessive intensity and temperature uncontrollability caused by direct heating. Many reactions require strict temperature control -- water bath lab equipment is a good choice for that.
Meanwhile, water baths provide a larger surface area so your samples can be heated within a shorter period of time. And because water baths can store a substantial amount of heat, there is very little risk of temperature fluctuations even if you are heating multiple samples at the same time.
Disadvantages of water bath in laboratory
The most glaring drawback of water baths is they are the number one source of contamination in a laboratory and the water often cannot securely hold vessels without tipping or bobbing. Warm water exposed to the ambient atmosphere can harbor and incubate unwanted microbial growth, like the untreated hot tub.
Types of water bath
Circulating water baths
Circulating water baths
, also known as stirrers, are a piece of ideal equipment for applications when temperature uniformity and consistency are critical, such as enzymatic and serologic experiments. The water is thoroughly circulated throughout the bath resulting in a more uniform temperature. The circulating water bath
reach and maintain desired water temperatures needed for the cooling or heating of samples and reagents both efficiently and reliably through the use of constantly circulating water. So, it supports rapid heating or cooling of samples over a wide range of temperatures.
Today, many models include features such as touchscreen operation and built-in methods Key considerations for purchasing a lab circulator include: temperature uniformity range, temperature control accuracy, the cooling and/or heating rate, and the associated costs of maintenance. The recirculating water bath
can be widely used for drying, concentration, distillation, impregnation of chemical reagents, and impregnation of drugs and biological products. It can also be used for water bath constant temperature heating and other temperature tests. Therefore, it is a necessary tool in the field of biology, heredity, virus, aquatic product, environmental protection, medicine, health, biochemistry laboratory, analysis room, education & scientific research, etc.
The refrigerated circulating water bath
meets the most demanding needs of applications that require refrigeration with circulation. These refrigerated circulating baths can easily reach up to -30°C temperature and are easy to use and safe for operators and samples.
Non-circulating water baths
The non-circulating water bath relies primarily on convection instead of water which is uniformly heated. That means it is less accurate in terms of temperature control than other water baths. In addition, there are some add-ons that provide stirring to non-circulating water baths to create more uniform heat transfer.
Shaking water baths
When the operation comes to moving liquids, waterbaths with additional shaking control are ideal. The control for strong shaking may be disabled. Continuous shaking enables liquid-grown cells to mix with air on a regular basis. An electric heating element that is submerged in the water regulates the temperature of a constant temperature water bath.
The shaking water bath has the characteristics of high precision temperature control, convenient temperature adjustment, accurate and intuitive indication, and superior and reliable performance. Its workshop is equipped with lighting devices to facilitate experimental observation. A fan and forced-air convection unit are installed in the cabinet to make the temperature more evenly distributed.
Digital water bath
The digital water bath is a digitally controlled unit that maintains typically temperatures in a range of 32ºC to 80ºC to soften a variety of wax or compound materials.
The simplest sort of water bath is the analog water bath. The analog bath is low-cost and simple to use. However, there are a few disadvantages. An analog water bath is less accurate than a digital water bath in this regard. Besides, there is no sign-up sheet which means you won't be able to tell what the water's true temperature is. An analog water bath has been modernized into a digital one. It's more accurate than the analog one. The water temperature in the digital water bath may also be seen on the display board that is included with the bath.
What is a cooling water bath?
A cooling water bath or ice bath is a liquid mixture used to maintain low temperatures in laboratory chemistry practice, usually between 13 °C and −196 °C.
What is the water bath in histology?
The water bath stage is the intermediate step between cutting paraffin sections and placing them on slides. A warm water bath allows tissue to relax and smooth out prior to being mounted on a glass slide and the warmth also makes the paraffin stick to the glass slides. This kind of device is called a histology water bath.
There are some other water baths that are not described in detail, such as the mini water bath, rectangular water bath, small water bath, dry water bath, precision water bath, etc.
How to use water bath in laboratory?
Using a water bath is simple, but it is crucial you get it right to avoid damaging or compromising your samples.
Use of laboratory water bath
1) Ensure that the surrounding area is dry and clean.
2) Connect the power supply directly.
3) Make sure the water is at the desired level and high enough to cover the heating element during operation.
4) Switch the water bath on then.
5) Set the temperature controls to the desired temperature and wait until the thermostat shows it has heated enough before heating.
6) When heating, please insert your samples carefully. The temperature sensor will maintain the temperature when having a water bath.
7) After use, please remove the samples and switch off the water bath.
Laboratory water bath maintenance
Proper maintenance is essential for prolonged life, no matter the type of water bath you are using.
Firstly, the type of water you are going to be using should be considered carefully. Distilled water works best in water baths because tap water can contain minerals that build up over time.
Secondly, make sure to drain the water bath every time to keep it in good condition. This kind of equipment needs to be cleaned regularly. It must be made sure whether it is switched off and remove the container before cleaning. Wipe the seals to clear any debris and be careful not to spill water into the unit as it can damage electrical components. Do not use corrosive cleaning agents on a water bath, and only use a damp cloth and mild detergent for cleaning.
Laboratory water bath diagram
How to buy a laboratory water bath?
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