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laboratory-glass-condenser

Lab Condenser

Condenser in chemistry lab

Content
1. What is lab condenser?
    1.1. Definition
    1.2. Use of lab condensor
2. How do lab condensers work?
3. Lab condenser types
    3.1. Reflux condensor
    3.2. Liebig condenser
    3.3. Allihn condenser
    3.4. Graham condenser
    3.5. Air condenser
4. Lab condenser specifications
    4.1. Liebig condenser
    4.2. Allihn condenser
    4.3. Graham condenser
5. How to use lab condenser?
6. Lab condenser in distillation apparatus
    6.1. Lab condenser installation steps
    6.2. Lab condenser cleaning steps
7. How to order lab condenser?

What is lab condenser?

Definition
condenser-laboratory
Lab condenser is used as a laboratory equipment to facilitate the role of condensation, which is achieved through the cooling of vapor and thus the role of condensation or reflux, laboratory condenser is often composed of two glass tubes, one inside and one outside, the smaller glass tube through the larger glass tube, is the use of the principle of heat exchange to make the condensing gas cooling condensation into a liquid a glass instrument.
Use of lab condenser
lab-condenser
Laboratory glass condensers are used in the distillation of liquids or organic preparations to act as condensate or reflux. Reflux units and distillation units are commonly used for condenser tube experimental units.
Laboratory condenser for scientific research, universities and colleges, petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical industry, medical and health care, and primary and secondary schools and other units of laboratory, for distillation, fractionation or reflux of the device with distillation flasks, curved receiver supporting the use of the role of condensing vapor and condensation of liquid droplets. Condensation tube in the selection, generally speaking, the lower the boiling point of distillates, the lower the vapor is not easy to cool, so the need for a long condenser tube, the inner diameter to thick, and vice versa, the higher the boiling point is the easier to cool the vapor, so the condenser tube is shorter and thinner is appropriate. On the other hand, distillate more, flask capacity, the heating surface also increased. In the same unit of time, the more vapors discharged, the choice of condenser tube should also relatively increase its length.

How do lab condensers work?

Lab condensers are often used on flasks for experiments under reflux conditions or on distillation flasks for collecting condensed liquids. Condensation of vapors occurs on the inner wall of the inner tube. The space enclosed by the inner and outer tubes provides the space for the water zone to absorb the heat of the vapor and remove the heat. There is often high water pressure at the water inlet, and to prevent the water tube from falling off, the plastic tube should be tied tightly with a tube bundle. Reflux state when used, the lower end of the condenser tube glass tube should be inserted into a rubber plug, so that it can be plugged into the mouth of the flask to take up the vapor evaporated upward in the flask.

Lab condenser types

According to the characteristics and shape of lab condensers, we can classify the common laboratory condensers into five types:

Reflux condensor

condenser-lab
The inner tube of the reflux condenser is some glass spheres connected for reflux of organic preparations and is suitable for liquids of various boiling points. After long-term use, the rust in the spacer can be washed away with hydrochloric acid.
When there are volatile liquid reactants, to avoid loss of reactants and to make full use of raw materials, a condensation reflux device is designed in the generator so that the substance returns from the gaseous state to the liquid state by condensation, thus refluxing and collecting. This can be achieved in the laboratory by installing a long glass tube or condensing reflux tube in the generator.

Liebig condenser

condenser-chemistry-lab
Liebig condenser is a Liebig's design, which is an air condenser tube as the inner core, with a thicker outer casing (water-cooled tube) welded on the outside, and a small nozzle welded on each end of the outer casing is used to connect the condensate inlet and outlet (the lower nozzle is used to connect the cooling water source, and the upper nozzle is used as the cooling water outlet). It is cooled with water, which can accelerate the cooling or shorten the length of the condensate tube. It is suitable for distillation and fractionation of substances with a boiling point of 140°C or less and is mainly used in inclined distillation units.

Allihn condenser

condenser-lab-equipment
Allihn condenser is designed by Allihn's, which uses a bulb-shaped tube as the inner core tube. Compared with the straight tube, the bulb-shaped inner core tube has a large cooling area and good effect, and the other parts are the same as the Liebig condenser. The same cooling area, can shorten the length of the condenser tube, and improve the distillation effect; because its inner core tube is bulb-shaped, easy to accumulate distillate in the ball part, so it is not suitable for inclined distillation devices, mostly used in vertical distillation device, suitable for reflux distillation operation.

Graham condenser

reflux-chemistry-lab
Graham condenser is Graham’s design with a spiral inner core tube, which increases the length of the glass tube and has a larger cooling surface than the bulb shape. The other parts are the same as the spherical shape. Also because the inner core tube is serpentine, more distillate is accumulated during distillation, so it is suitable for vertical continuous long-time distillation or reflux device.

Air condenser

air-condenser-chemistry-lab
An air condenser is mainly used when evaporating products, including distillation and fractionation, when the distillate boiling point exceeds 140 degrees Celsius, the air condenser is generally used to avoid the straight condenser from being cooled by water resulting in the glass temperature difference and blowing up.
Air condenser upper end thicker and rounded mouth, the lower end of the slender tail ground into a 45 ° beveled glass tube. The upper end is thick, mainly to facilitate the connection of the distillation flask stubs set into the round mouth, mainly to increase the mechanical strength; the lower end into a 45 ° beveled angle, to facilitate the concentration of liquid droplets and smooth flow into the receiving flask. It is suitable for distillation of substances boiling point of 140 ℃ above the distillation of high-boiling substances with, or some can not contact with water distillation of substances for cooling.

Lab condenser specifications

Liebig condenser

air-condenser-laboratory
Material High borosilicate glass
Specification 200mm
Outer casing diameter22mm
Outer casing length 20mm
Upper tube length 70mm
Lower tube diameter11mm
Lower tube length80mm
Inner casing diameter 11mm
Full length 350mm
Features: 
Liebig condenser with smooth surface, frosted caliber, high-temperature resistance, good strength, high hardness.

Allihn condenser

air-condenser-lab
MaterialHigh borosilicate glass
Specification200mm/19*19
Outer casing diameter38mm
Number of inner balls6
Full length300mm
Features: 
The Allihn condenser tube is made of excellent material, high hardness, high transparency, high-quality material, and a fine production process, which is more suitable for fine experimental work.

Graham condenser

lab-condenser-types
MaterialHigh borosilicate glass
Specification200mm/19*19
Outer casing diameter38mm
Inner casing diameter9mm
Full length300mm
Features: 
Graham condenser is made of thickened material, strong and durable, not easy to damage, and glossy and transparent, high light transmission rate.

How to use lab condenser?

Different laboratory condensers are used in different ways, and the following are the instructions for the main type of lab glass condenser in simple distillation:
condenser-for-laboratory

1. Liebig condenser

The Liebig condenser should be washed before use, and the upper end of the condenser tube is enlarged and connected to the branch pipe of the flask with a rubber stopper with a hole punched. The distillation flask is added to the substance to be distilled, and then the water inlet of the condenser, i.e., the lower port, is connected to the water source with a rubber tube, and another rubber tube is connected to the upper port to facilitate the flow of cooling wastewater. The lower end of the condenser is connected to the receiving flask, which is usually connected to the receiving flask with a curved receiver, which allows the distillate to flow out vertically. After all the devices are installed, fixed on the shelf, first open the cooling water source, and then heated so that the distillate to boiling, the vapor along the inner core tube meets the wall of the cooling water cooling tube that condensed into droplets, flowing into the receiving bottle, that is, the pure material.

2. Allihn condenser

The Allihn condenser is washed before use, the upper end of the spherical condenser tube is enlarged and connected to the stub of the flask with a rubber stopper with a hole punched, the distillation flask is added to the substance to be distilled, and then the water source is connected to the water inlet of the condenser tube with a rubber tube, and another rubber tube is connected to the upper port to facilitate the flow of cooling wastewater.

3. Graham condenser

The Graham condenser is also need to wash before use, and the upper end of the condensate tube is enlarged and connected to the branch pipe of the flask with a rubber stopper with a hole punched. The distillation flask is added to the substance to be distilled, and then the water source is connected to the water inlet of the condensate tube with a rubber tube, and another rubber tube is connected to the upper port to facilitate the flow of cooling waste water. The lower end of the condenser is connected to the receiving bottle, which is usually connected to the receiving bottle with an elbow-shaped receiver that allows the distillate to flow out vertically. After all the devices are installed, fixed on the shelf, first open the cooling water source, and then heated so that the distillate to boiling, the vapor along the inner core tube meets the wall of the cooling water-cooled tube that condenses into droplets, flowing into the receiving bottle, that is, pure material. Reflux condensing device, in fact, is a concentrated purification device, it will be condenser tube through the rubber plug directly into the triangular flask, the triangular flask is filled with distilled material and solvent, before heating, first connected to the water source, and then heated to boiling, the vapor rises to meet the cooling water cooled droplets, still return to drop into the triangular flask, so that a small amount of solvent repeatedly contact with the dissolved material, not only not to volatile loss, but also play a full dissolution. And play a full dissolution of the role.

Lab condenser in distillation apparatus

Laboratory condensers are an important part of the distillation apparatus sold in the market today. So how to install and clean it is what laboratory staff should know. The following is an example of how to install and clean a lab condenser on an integrated distillation apparatus.
lab-glass-condenser

Lab condenser installation steps

1. Place the iron stand on a horizontal table with the base turned to the back.

2. Place the electric stove with asbestos mesh on top and place the conical flask.

3. Pass the condenser tube carefully through the iron ring and connect it to the conical flask.

4. Adjust the position of the iron ring up and down, it is appropriate to control the position of the middle of the condensation tube on the upper side, and then tighten the knob of the iron ring.

5. Connect the condensate tubes with rubber tubes in the way of "lower in and upper out". The lower port of the spherical condensate tube is connected to the tap with a rubber tube, and the upper port of the condensate tube is connected to the rubber tube in the sink.
If the connection tube between adjacent condensate tubes is too long, wrap it around the iron shelf to avoid touching the furnace.

6. Open the faucet, adjust the flow rate, if the water flows through the condensate tubes in turn and finally flows out smoothly from the outlet, it means that the device is not blocked.

Lab condenser cleaning steps

Lab condenser cleaning is divided into physical cleaning and chemical cleaning. Physical cleaning generally use high-pressure water jets to remove the dirt on the copper condensate tube. If the scale is hard scale, chemical cleaning should be carried out and the scale cannot be physically removed. A special chemical treatment of the condensate tube is necessary in order to make the condensate tube operate in an optimized condition.

1. Close the cooling water valve of the condensing tube in and out of theintegrated distillation apparatus. Connect the thermometer tube, pressure gauge tube or drainage tube with the anticorrosive pump and liquid dispensing tank to form a small circulating cleaning system.

2. First add the acid cleaning corrosion inhibitor. The agent is a special copper corrosion inhibitor that attaches to the metal inner wall of the condensate tube to prevent the acid and metal from reacting.

3. Then add solid acid cleaning agent to clean the scale with calcium carbonate scale as the main component. The cleaning agent is compound solid organic acid, white crystal, non-corrosive to metal, weak acid. The amount of cleaning agent depends on the size of the equipment.

4. Add slurry descaling agent (optional). If the condensate tube equipment is thickly scaled, it is necessary to add slurry descaling agent to promote the products after the scaling reaction to dissolve in water quickly and accelerate the deep scaling reaction.

5. Add neutralizing passivator to neutralize residual acid after chemical cleaning of condensate tube to prevent oxidation of metal surface to produce secondary floating rust.

How to order lab condenser?

ANTITECK provide lab equipment, lab consumable, manufacturing equipment in life sciences sector.
If you are interested in our lab condenser or have any question, please write an e-mail to info@antiteck.com, we will reply to you as soon as possible.


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